Reflections: Poland, Farming, Fresh Perspectives

It is a strange feeling to come to the end of our 19th International Farm Management Congress and tour of Poland. 

It seems we have spent a lifetime here with all of the places we have been and knowledge we have gained, and yet, it feels like we only just arrived yesterday. How quickly our IFMA acquaintances become not only our friends, but our family. While we sometimes refer to our ‘home away from home’, it seems we’re at the end of our family reunion! We have all said our goodbyes – with promises to see each other again in 2 years’ time in Canada. I cannot wait to introduce all of you to our IFMA family. 

I am delighted to have been among 17 Canadian delegates at the Congress, and look forward to bringing many more into this wonderful Association.

What a remarkable feeling to be presenting a paper to a room full of delegates from across the globe, only to realize you are in complete harmony with others in Norway, Uruguay and South Africa. And, the connection is made, just like that. We’ve been singing from the same song sheet without knowing it…imagine the harmonies we can make together!

I feel a sense of overwhelming privilege and pride to be part of such a high-spirited and caring group – the best ambassadors for lifelong learning and convalescence through connectivity, the world over. For we know there is always room for improvement and rewards to be had by letting your guard down – by seeing life, farming, agriculture, through the eyes of others.

We quickly forget our differences and see our common ground in humanity and life’s simple pleasures – in living, loving, laughing and learning.

Lasting Impressions
In Poland, the people we have met and the stories we have shared have truly touched our hearts and opened our minds. One night at dinner, our guide Jan told us of his first experience outside of Poland when he was just a boy. He recalls the ‘Western World’ – our colours, the smell of our clothes, our smiles, breathed ‘new life into him’. Humbling, isn’t it?

Poland’s resilience through uncertainty is remarkable.

Fear comes from uncertainty.
~Willian Congreve

I hope that you will take an opportunity to come visit Poland for yourself and learn from its past; our past – and, be inspired in looking around and ahead.

Looking to the Future
You will recall from a previous post that Poland is starting to and will undergo some significant changes in agricultural policy in the coming years. By 2015/17,
– All quota will be removed (dairy, sugar)
– Subsidies will be reduced (~30%) and farms treated individually
– 4-7% environmental preservation of land will be required

The farmers we met seem keen to welcome a more open market as they feel their business management skills will give them the competitive edge over others who depend upon subsidies for financial and risk management. As with all countries, we know that sustainable business depends of profit margins comfortably exceeding cost of production. While variables change in priority and practice, some common themes definitely emerge – labour access and availability, growth and expansion, capacity to sustain, farm succession and working with agricultural policy.

Looking at processing plants like ROJA, removal of subsidies could have a significant impact on supply chain industries – where will the money come from to build a processing plant stemming from a farmer cooperative in future?

Regarding the environmental requirements, this is surely good news to bee keepers who are very concerned about sustaining the bee population. If farmers retain dedicated parcels of land untouched by fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, bees may have a chance.

One of the limiting factors for farm management and growth is the separation of agricultural plots. Strip agriculture is everywhere, creating a logistical nightmare for farmers. Hopefully as the state continues to see off property, farmers can purchase larger plots of joined land.


poland strips

I want to reiterate that this blog is subject to our understanding and perceptions and there is much more to be said and discussed regarding this experience. We certainly welcome your comments and questions, and additions!

Become a part of IFMA!
All of the Congress Papers will be available on very soon, and select papers will be published in the International Journal of Agricultural Management.

I invite you all to join us in bringing the 20th International Farm Management Congress to Canada in 2015.

Attend, bring your family, bring your farm team, bring your colleagues, sponsor your students, clients and young farmers.

The International Farm Management Congress is, by far, the best kept secret for lifelong learning in agriculture.

Come join us, won’t you?

While the tours have finished, we will continue to use this blog to share post-Congress updates.

Thanks very much for your support in subscribing and reading the blog!

– The FMC Team


Poland’s Horse and Apple industry, Naturally!

Today is the last day of our adventure in Poland. As we make our way back to Warsaw, we’ll be dropping by one of Poland’s top Arabian stud farms followed by ROJA apple processors.


Michałów State Stud Farm
Michałów State Stud Farm has been breeding pure-bred Arabian horses for sixty years.

With over 100 broodmares and 400 Arabians at the stud, Michałów is the largest Arabian facility in Poland, and is considered one of the largest and most prestigious farms in Europe, not to mention the entire globe. At present, Michałów still operates as a subsidiary of the Agriculture Property Agency of the State Treasury in Warsaw.





Pictured above: Poland, EU and World Champion

The Arabians have won 11 American championships, 8 EU championships and 10 World championships. The Farm holds the world record for selling a female horse for 1,125,000 Euros. On average, the Arabians sell for 70,000 Euro, however lower-end horses can go for 2,000-5,000 Euros each.

We were very privileged to see the 400 horses put to pasture.


Unique to this Farm is the Tarzan colour of the Tarrant breed (Mongolian descent).


The Farm enjoys 700ha of land on two farms. 400ha grow corn, wheat, barley and rape, bringing in 1000t/yr.

The farm employs 15 persons for the stud business, and 8 persons for the dairy business. 70% of the farm’s profits come from the Arabian Farm.

The Farm also has a dairy operation of 300 cows (100 Jersey, 200 Friesian). The Jersey milk is used for cheese while the Freisians are used for milk.




ROJA Farm: Apple Co-operative and Processors
ROJA is a family business. We were toured around and hosted by the founder/owner/president’s son and daughter-in-law.


ROJA was officially opened in January 2013 as a processing cooperative, collecting apples from 1000 hectares of orchards, which consists of 43 growers. There are no other equity partners in the plant apart from its farmer members who receive equity/voting rights based on their production quantity (at a maximum of 20% equity). The cooperative meet monthly to discuss issues and opportunities. Due to high tech data collection, growers readily receive reports on their apples and traceability is top of the line.

70% of the costs to build the plant were garnered from EU subsidies, while the producers invested the rest (a total investment of 200million PLN for the entire operation).

Subsidies as such ended in April 2013.

According to our host, the plant receives minimal profit because the farmers are guaranteed a certain price for their apples and must be paid first. The plant sets an average price and at the end of the season, if prices were higher, growers receive the difference.

Exports are to England, Spain, France and Russia.

Optimal production is 60,000 tonnes of apples/yr. Each kilogram is sold for approximately 1-2PLN. Poland produced 3.5million tonnes of apples in 2012.
The processing plant employs 56 people.

apple2As the apples move through the assembly line, each apple is photographed 20 times to rate size, colour, shape, etc. so that the apples can then be sorted.
The facility can store 5000 plastic crates of apples (each measuring 3×3 feet). Apples are stored at 35 degs Fahrenheit with 1-1.5% Oxygen. Apples can typically be stored for a year and retain their quality. We munched on apples picked last October and they were absolutely delicious…and huge!


After the tour, we were invited back to the son’s house. Pretty impressive – a previous state home.



Tonight we’re back in Warsaw, saying goodbye to our friends and IFMA family to return to our countries and share all that we have learned!

Poland – a Turbulent Past, a Resilient People

Today was about absorbing the history and culture felt by Poland through the ages from the 7th century through to the horrors of WWII.

Poland’s History in Brief
5th – 8th Century – Arrival of the Slavs, permanent settlement and historic development
966 – Christianity adopted, medieval monarchy established
1569 – Establishment of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1795 – Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy terminated the Commonwealth’s independent existence
1918 – Opportunity for freedom appeared after World War I, when partitioning imperial powers were defeated by war and revolution
1918 to 1939 – Second Polish Republic was established
1939 – Nazi Germany and Soviet Union invaded Poland, millions of Polish citizens perished
1945 – Soviet Red Army defeated Nazi Germany, leading to the creation of the People’s Republic of Poland under communist regime
Late 1980s – Poland became a democratic state resulting in the creation of the modern Polish state
2004 – Poland accession to the European Union



We are staying in Kraków for two days. Kraków is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland, dating back to the 7th century.

After the invasion of Poland at the start of World War II, Kraków became the capital of Germany’s General Government.

In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II – the first Slavic pope ever, and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years.




Wawel Royal Castle

Wawel Castle was built in the mid-to-late 14th Century.

The interior is adorned with a number of tapestries wall-to-wall. At the beginning of the WWII, some 150 tapestries were set to Canada for safe-keeping and returned thereafter. There is a plaque on the entrance wall commemorating Canada as a safe haven for Wawel’s treasures.






The room shown above includes tapestries depicting Genesis. Tapestries were used to insulate the walls.

Auschwitz – Birkenau

I had mixed feelings about visiting Auschwitz – Birkenau today. I had the desire to learn, but at the same time I wanted to honour those who lost their lives – may they rest in peace.

Upon entering the first building, I read the following sign, which helped me come to terms with the significance of our presence.


To respect the 1,300,000 people who lost their lives here, I will only share the following image – the entrance sign to Auschwitz.

It reads “Arbeit macht frei” which translates to “work/labour makes (you) free.”


International Case Studies: Impact of Business Management

Today signaled the last day of the Congress and talk about saving the best for last.

My morning began with a speed-learning session on Entrepreneurship and Farm Strategies Development in CEE Countries which gave 10 international speakers the opportunity to present their work in 10 minute segments.

Of note, Ryan Koeslag of Ontario’s Agricultural Management Institute presented Baseline Study on the Behaviours and Characteristics of Farmers who conduct Business Management Strategies – A Story of 5 Ontario Farmers.

Other presentations included:

  • Study of development paths in dairy farming in Poland, Lithuania, Slovenia and the Netherlands – an overview – Abele Kuipers
  • Development paths of dairy farmers in Poland – Agata Malak-Rawlikowska
  • Interactive strategic management method + application in farmers trainings within LdV Project – Alfons Beldman
  • Farm analysis and strategy building with support of ISM method, – case of Polish farmer – Lech Sychocki
  • ISM training experiences in Slovenia, including work with farmers, students and entrepreneurial assignments – Maria Klopcic
  • Development paths and experiences with ISM trainings in Lithuania – Aldona Stalgiene
  • Evaluation of the interactive strategic management trainings – Agata Rawlikowska
  • Effect measuring of the trainings including competences – Carolien de Lauwere
  • Sustainability of ISM project results – ideas for future Agata Sosinska

Some observations:

1. Analysis of Farm Development Paths: Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia, Dutch
– Most farmers characterize themselves as independent specialists (41%)
– Farmers indicated how important farming goals were, ranking as follows:

  1. Maximize profits
  2. Sustainable quality
  3. Dairy tradition
  4. Work environment
  5. Improve management

– Farmers indicated knowledge was the most available resource to them, and least available is land. Labour is also an issue.
– Opportunities & Threats ranked the top threat as the Ag Policy (2015 removal of quota and reduction of subsidies), followed by the milk market, and regulations
– Top opportunities included interaction in the chain (vertical, horizontal value and supply chains) and technology
– Note: Dutch farmers see abolition of milk quota as an opportunity – Abele thought this had to do with self confidence in business management competency

2. Dairy Production Developments and Farm Strategies
– Accession to EU caused farmers to modernize and increase production scale
– Resulted in decrease of dairy farmers (61%), increase in yield per cow and improved milk quality
– Development strategies: 86% specialization (as opposed to diversification), 80% growth, 37% vertical chain, 42% cooperation, 9% diversification
– Downscaling, wait & see, diversification were ranked least used strategies
– 250% increase in milk production per farm since accession in 2004
– Rented vs bought land has had no impact on business development
– Dairy accounts for 20% of ag output
agata – 5th producer in EU – 10mill tonnes/yr

– 170,000 farms producing milk (average 10 ha w/ 11 cows)
– 62 tonnes of milk per farm, 5200kg milk per cow
– 27 euro for 100 kg
– 70% cooperatives
– 25% production exported
– No statistical difference between strategy and demographics – age, education of the manager
– Those who want to diversify are smaller farms
– 70% of farmers do not want to employ more workers (limiting the scale of production)

3. Interactive Strategic Management as Learning Tool for Improving Entrepreneurship of Farmers
– Issue: no clear direction available for the future of all farmers
– Farmers need to be shown how to develop a long term strategy for a successful future

The Program
– 3 day farmers’ training + other types
– Main goal not to develop the strategy but to think and work strategically
– Focus on strategic choices (5 years) not on operational or tactical choices
– Work with diverse farmers to avoid operational conversations in group
– 8-10 farmers, 3 meetings in a row with 2-3 weeks between
– + Facilitator
– + Web-based tool to support the tool not lead
– + Homework assignments to interact and reflect
– + Train the trainer

Day 1
o Farmers get acquainted – why are you a ___ farmer? What job would you have done if not a ______ farmer?
o What is strategic management?
o History and development of farm and farmer
o Working with tools
 Analyze current situation on farm (size, performance)
 Analyze environment (market and society)
 Use the tool
o Homework assignment – talk with an entrepreneur outside of agriculture

Day 2
o Present results of homework
o Talk about entrepreneurship skills
o Switch from analyzing to strategy
 Personal ambitions and drive
 Combining the analyses to matching strategy (must come up with at least 2)
 Consistency check with SMT – crucial step in training
– Spider diagrams

Day 3
o Present strategy to the group
o Develop action plan
o Reality check – investment? Make the first calculation yourself
o Reflection from trainer and other farmers

Year Later
o Return meeting
o Presentation of developments
o Plan tweaking
(try and stay in touch before this)
– Based on Canvas Business Model approachpoland farmer

4. Farm Analysis and Strategy Building with Support of ISM Method
– Farmers say they want more family life in beginning, but end plan doesn’t have it – so facilitator comes in to point out mismatch
5. Baseline Study on the Behaviours and Characteristics of Farmers Who Practice Business Development Strategies
– Farmers categorized as sceptics, planners, developers, sunsetters, independants
– When compare types of farmers, there is a correlation between more business plans and increased sales in last 5 years
– Developers are the largest, planners have the most business plans – most likely to report increased sales
– Full study and report available at

9. Effect Measuring of the Trainings including Competences
– Farmers who participated, perceive their competencies as higher than control group
– Survey to participants + control group
– Decrease in negativity about the future

A number of simultaneous sessions were held during this Thematic Session, one of which was Mathieu Lipari’s presentation: 2020: Planning for the Business Management Needs of Canadian Farmers – When You Don’t Know What You Don’t Know

Everyone collected back into the main lecture hall where we were delighted by a farmers’ panel:

farmer panel

  • Wiesław Gryn (Poland)
  • David Hughes (Argentina)
  • Alex Lisitssa (Ukraine)
  • Andy MacFarlane (New Zealand)
  • Alastair Paterson (South Africa)

Of particular interest, David Hughes from Argentina spoke about the adoption of CREA (farm management groups) after a French model 50 years ago. This is the same model adopted by the Groupes conseils agricoles in Quebec. David’s CREA has over 200 groups with over 2000 members total.

Groups consist of 12 farmers who meet monthly and are led by an advisor paid by the group. Information is shared and benchmarked and field tests are planned. A Coordinator ensures advisors get together to readily share information and secure a strong technical network. Each group is chaired by a farmers and after two years, cannot come back to Chair until all members have had a turn.

Andy Macfarlane, farm management consultant from New Zealand, cited some dairy facts re: average farms:
– 100% irrigated
– 550 acres
– 770 cows
– Production 342,000 kg MS (5,2% fat)
– 6800 kg milk per cow (25 kg/day)
– 4 employees, 16% of total production costs
– 80% pasture diet
– $38,000/ha
– $8000/ha Fonterra shares
– $6000/ha stock
– $1000/ha plant
– Return on Capital: 4.7-6.6%

Andy cited NZ’s main trends:
– Environmental standards tightening
– Cost of infrastructure continues to drive farmers from sheep and beef towards dairy
– High prices encourage opportunists to defraud value chains
– 45% avg. debt level
– 6% fixed interest rate
– Markets moving west to east, China takes 30% milk and lamb, beef and timber
– Ag students need to increase by 500% to meet demand
And lastly, NZ can feed 30 million people.

Finally, it was time to present Canada as the next Congress location and invite participants to come see us in 2015!
The 20th International Farm Management Congress will be in Quebec City – August 2015. Be there!

Thanks to Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada and Quebec Tourism for supplying materials for the presentation.

Rob Napier (Australia) closed the Congress encouraging participants to create a Takeaways 2-pager and action plan to follow the Congress.

Afterwards the Council (Board) met for a post-Congress meeting to reflect on what went well, areas for improvement and carrying IFMA’s strategic direction forward.

A personal thanks goes to our fellow Canadians for bringing such a strong Canadian delegation to this Congress. And special thanks to CRAAQ for taking part in the Congress to ensure 2015 is a huge success!

Tomorrow (Saturday) I begin the first day of a week-long post tour around Poland. Be sure to follow my adventure, starting with JMP Flowers.


Politics, Policy, People – a Science for Polish agriculture

Today’s itinerary consisted of the opening ceremony featuring a number of key industry players including Poland’s Minister of Agriculture Stanislaw Kalemba followed by 3 blocks of plenary sessions, 4 paper presentation sessions and another wonderful meal prepared by the University.

Participants gained an understanding of the context within Polish agriculture has transformed, continues to change and the future outlook.

While all of the speakers were fascinating and I encourage you to go to or read further, or look for the paper presentations on following the Congress, I will share just a bit of what some of the presenters had to say.

Leszek Balcerowicz, former Deputy Prime Minister and current department head and professor at the Warsaw School of Economics spoke about Poland’s transformation (beginning in 1989) from communism to democracy and capitalization’s role in creating sustainable (thereby competitive) economic models.

Professor Balcerowicz made the comment – you can have capitalism without democracy, but you cannot have democracy without capitalism. In Poland and other countries, Balcerowicz demonstrated a dramatic increase in per capital GDP following the move away from communism – as the state towards competitiveness.

Standford University’s Scott Rozelle shared his perspective on how China has gone from zero to hero in terms of economic development, and lessons that other countries may take away as such, especially those developed nations that are being well outdone by the BRICS nations in economic growth and development. Rozelle posits that upon studying the last 50 years, one of the main driving forces for growth and development is agriculture – it is in fact the underlying trigger.

China, which has grown by one California annually over the last 30 years, stimulated growth through:

–          Institutional reform

–          Market liberation

–          Investment in agricultural technologies (and ready-access) – ex. Irrigation

Further to the first point, in 1978 China had 40,000 state farms. What happened when China broke these farms into 200 million family farms (one football field per family) was a 50% increase in productivity as the farmers themselves could individually see the benefits or fruits of their labour and it was an incentive to do well.

Rozelle’s conclusion: the greatest role for government is R&D and extension as for the public good.

Tomasz Zdziebkowski of Top Farms (Spearhead International) spoke to his program managing 70k hectares in in EU using a new farm management conceptualization stemming from an organizational chart that dismantles the concept of the Farm Manager because fundamentally, the Farm Manager cannot do everything in practice, nor is this good management. So, we start with a Board, and separate managers for various productions cross-sectioning with managers in Mechanization, Finance & Administration, and supporting departments. The Farm Manager moves to occupy one of these positions. While the concept of establishing a defined org chart isn’t new (see Dick Wittman’s work from the US), Tomasz adds a Management Information System that fundamentally allows his farms to compare apples to apples ranging from Inputs and Mechanization Costs to Overrun and storage, land tax, subsidies, estate charges and general overhead before subsidies. And, the Farm Manager is not responsible for all of these aspects, but is aware of them.

Moving into policy, Jerry Plewa of the European Commission spoke of the CAP (ag policy). I found it quite interesting to draw comparisons with the Growing Forward 2 policy framework.

CAP is framed within:

Production Competitiveness Sustainability

GF2 is framed within:

Competitiveness Marketing Innovation

I am often curious as to how semantics play a role in the adoption of conceptual frameworks.

The EU has moved to cross-compliance (similar to Canada) – ex. Farmers must fulfill climate and environmental requirements in order to receive support including crop diversity (at least 3 crops), permanent pasture and ecological focus areas for between 4%-7% of land (land is not touched by fertilizers for example).

Other changes include dismantling any quota systems (sugar by 2017, dairy by 2015), investment in the creation of producer groups, increased support for shortening of supply chains, and increased investment in public research, development and knowledge transfer.

Also, under previous policy, all farmers of all types received equal subsidies, and there is now a move towards receipt of subsidies that reflect the nature of individual farm businesses.

Poland will offer duty free quota free on all imports (interesting: more imports come from developing countries than US, UK, Canada, NZ added together).

Ultimate goal of CAP: to create an environment where farmers can be profitable, without compromising the environment.

One aspect of CAP programming that peaked my interest was ‘Retirement Incentives’ – I’d like to learn more about this as the Congress goes on.

Joe Outlaw from the Ag & Food Policy Centre enjoys a very close relationship with Congress and the Farm Bill. Mr. Outlaw was very candid in his discussion. The US is looking to cut the food program by over $20 billion annually.

Outlaw notes that the new Farm Bill will only help when things are really bad as thresholds for kicking in are unprecedentedly low. He predicts corn will drop to $4/bu which is reaching CoP territory – and, we may have a severe problem in that the Farm Bill is really designed to help farmers in times of need – last year $65 billion out of $200 billion went unspent because times were good.

Outlaw spoke of the Dairy Producers Margin Protection program and the Dairy Market Stabilization Program. Ultimately, aiming to decrease production in the US.

Newcastle University’s David Harvey drew some interesting connections between Darwinian and Adam Smith theory related to the survival of the fittest (and his agricultural economics perspective as such). Harvey worked for Ag Canada for some time and was instrumental in bringing about the Western Grains Stabilization Program.

Yelto Zimmer presented on AgriBenchmark – a tool using international partners to create international benchmarks and look at trends and best practices.

Edward Gacek stressed the importance of farmer involvement in Participatory Plant Breeding Programs to create the real context for studying the practical results when science meets implementation at the farm level.

And finally, Roman Izdebski of EkoysteEM reminded us all of the importance of soil health and sustainable practices.

Following these plenary sessions, participants enjoyed paper session – we could choose 4 of approx. 30 offerings on various topics. More later!

Canadian delegates, please feel free to ass your 2 cents – what presentations stood out for you?

We’re off to our first day of farm tours today – I’m looking at the fruit value chain while others are looking at vegetable, dairy, research and other topics.

Questions and comments are welcome!


IFMA19 off to a great start with a yip and whistle!

As we flew into Warsaw, we couldn’t help but notice the parcels of land similar to that which you see around Quebec City – long, thin strips of a variety of crops. And, as we approached closer we noticed much forestation in and around the city.

warsaw overhead


Aerial View of Warsaw

Upon arriving at the University of Life Sciences, IFMA-goers were delighted by a tour of Warsaw to learn about the culture and history of the city and its restoration.

warsaw old city


Old City, Warsaw

An interesting tour topic was related to the noticeable forestation in that parcels of parkland/forest were given to the working class by the city in honour of their contribution to the city, and so you have this vast parkland which reminds me of New Zealand’s natural visage preservation regulations, which is now of course prime real estate for development and unfortunately a source of ongoing dispute. It is however, lovely to see trees everywhere you turn.

IFMA19 officially kicked off with a barbeque in the evening where we were welcomed to the Rector’s House (a gorgeous property) and treated to a feast of a meal – fresh fruit and vegetables, veal, and of course sausages. Another tasty delight was lard with dark bread.

rector house


Rector’s House, University of Life Sciences, Warsaw

And, we were dazzled by a group of University students who performed cultural dancing and even stopped a moment for some photo ops.

All in all, a great start – it’s such an amazing feeling to connect with colleagues from around the world and picking up right where we left off two years ago in New Zealand. Many new faces as well, and this is encouraging – IFMA is the best kept secret worldwide…hands down. What an opportunity, and we feel sincerely privileged to be in the company of so many esteemed leaders who give it their all when it comes to farm management their and sharing insights and best practices.

Terry Betker and Heather Watson took part in the Council meeting this afternoon as members of the Board.

Oh, and an unexpected additional Canadian delegate – Joel Bokenfohr from Alberta is here! That makes 16 of us!

More tomorrow when we kick off the plenary sessions with Poland’s Minister of Agriculture!


Canadian delegates ready to do Canadian agriculture proud!

We have 15 Canadian delegates travelling to the 19th International Farm Management Congress in Poland.

Here’s a list of who will be presenting what:

Farm Management Canada – Heather Watson
Transferring Knowledge and Experience to Strengthen the Agricultural Industry: Step Up – A Mentorship Program for Canada’s Future Farm Managers

IFMA20 Canada Presentation to Congress – Invitation to Canada – August 2015

Farm Management Canada – Mathieu Lipari
2020: Planning for the Business Management Needs of Canadian Farmers – When You Don’t Know What You Don’t Know

University of Saskatchewan – Suren Kulshreshtha
Economic and Environmental Assessment of Pulse Rotations in Canadian Prairies

University of Saskatchewan – Eric Micheels
Experience, Learning and Innovativeness in Beef Production: Results from a Cluster Analysis

University of Saskatchewan – Bill Brown
The Extent of the Structural Change in Primary Agriculture

University of Saskatchewan – Marv Painter
North American Farmland Investment Performance Assessment Using E-V Analysis, CAPM and Value at Risk

University of Saskatchewan -Dick Schoney
An Agent-Based Simulation Model of Western Canadian Prairie Agricultural Structural Change

Backswath Management – Terry Betker
Farm Management Plans – Terry Betker
Farm Family Business Consultant Peer Group: a Review

Agricultural Management Institute – Ryan Koeslag
Baseline Study on the Behaviours and Characteristics of Farmers who Conduct Business Management Strategies – A Story of 5 Ontarion Farmers


For a complete list of paper presentations, click here.

And of course, for the complete Congress agenda, visit:

We are so very pleased to be in the company of these innovative business thinkers.